# Assignment 2 - IT Elective 6

The last discussions were about creating contingency tables, measures of variation, and knowing how normal, kurtosis, and asymmetrical distribution work as part of the business intelligence course. Bivariate data and correlation, information theory and entropy were also tackled here. It is paramount to know these various measurements and analysis of data to analyze and sort complex data effectively and efficiently.

**Contingency Table**

In contingency tables, one variable's results are categorized in rows and the other in columns. The frequencies for each distinct combination of the two variables are represented by the values at the row and column intersections. To comprehend the connection between category variables, we use contingency tables. The ability to perform simple probability calculations is one advantage of having data provided in a contingency table; the task is made even simpler by adding a summary row and column to the table, followed by a chi-squared test.

**Measures of Variation**

Statistics uses measures of variation to characterize the distribution or dispersion of data. It demonstrates how distantly related data points are to one another. Measures of variation are used by statisticians to condense their data. Using measures of variation, such as high and low variability, you can derive a variety of conclusions. Measures of variation are important to accurately portray the variability in the data, and to comprehend how the degree of data values' spread out in a distribution which can be examined using straightforward metrics.

**Distribution Visualization**

Advanced analytics depend on data visualization, which is a component of many business intelligence solutions. It assists people in making sense of the vast amount of information or data produced nowadays. When data is visualized, it is presented graphically as a pie chart, graph, or other kind of visual display. Distribution Visualization is important because by providing firms with greater understanding of important performance metrics and trends, data visualization in business intelligence may assist them in making more educated decisions.

**Normal, Kurtosis and Asymmetrical Distribution**

**Normal Distribution**

For studying technical stock market movements and other kinds of statistical observations, analysts employ the normal distribution. The average/mean and the standard deviation are the two components that make up the standard normal distribution. An example of a continuous probability distribution is the normal distribution, in which the majority of data points cluster in the middle of the range while the remaining ones taper off symmetrically toward either extreme. The distribution's mean is another name for the center of the range. The normal distribution may be used by financial analysts to calculate the expected return and risk of various investments.

**Kurtosis distribution**

Larger values indicate a data distribution may have "heavy" tails that are lengthy with extreme observations or that are densely concentrated with observations. Kurtosis is a descriptive statistic used to assist quantify how data scatter between a distribution's center and tails. Kurtosis may be used to determine whether a distribution deviates from the norm and to comprehend its form. It aids in the identification of outliers, the evaluation of extreme event risk, and the estimation of the likelihood of high or low returns in statistical or investing analysis.

**Asymmetrical Distribution**

Asymmetrical distribution occurs when the mean, median, and mode occur at various sites while the values of the variables occur at irregular frequencies. The distribution is skewed when it is asymmetric.

**Bivariate data and correlation, information theory and entropy**

**Bivariate Data and Correlation**

Bivariate data and correlation are when you can look at the link between two variables using a bivariate analysis. Identifying if there is a correlation between the variables and, if so, how strong the relationship is, is important. This is quite beneficial for researchers doing a study.

**Information theory and entropy**

Quantifying how much information is contained in a message is a fundamental principle of information theory. More generally, entropy, which is determined using probability, may be used to measure the information in an event and a random variable.

**Regression Analysis**

The statistical technique of regression analysis is used in business to determine the relationships between two or more independent and dependent variables. The effect of one independent variable on the other dependent variables is quantified. Regression models come in more than ten different general categories. Simple regression is used when there is just one independent, dependent, or predictor variable. On the other hand, multiple regression is used when several independent factors are having an impact on a single dependent variable.

Each one of these distributions and data analysis is important when measuring, sorting, and filtering data more effectively and efficiently. As these data could help everyone in the business industry in their decision making processes and strategical thinking in order to achieve their goals.

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